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Waterproofing is the formation of a waterproof barrier designed to prevent water from entering or exiting various areas of the building structure. The sealing system consists of a series of integral components that work together to prevent moisture from entering the structure. The system configuration is generally similar for all sealing applications. The material components common to all types of sealing applications are the structural substrate, door, membrane and insulation.
Plaza Deck Waterproofing (Horizontal): Horizontal applications (underground or at ground level) generally consist of the following component configuration:
drainage (surface drainage)
Underground (vertical) sealing: the typical system configuration for underground vertical applications is as follows:
Mud Mat: Sub-level waterproofing typically begins at the mud mat level. A mud mat is a reinforced concrete slab or gravel bed placed under the foundation. The purpose of the mud layer is to prevent groundwater from entering the surface of the slab. Buildings constructed on sites with high aquifers should always include a clay mat.
These plates are used as reasonably stable all-weather mounting platforms to accommodate the waterproofing of the underside of the wear plate as well as to support saddles and armor tie rods with little or no deflection when installing the reinforced wear plate. Such unreinforced floor panels will absorb moisture and water which will cause any waterproofing system to flake from these floor panels, be it a liquid membrane or a reinforced membrane. This is a point that must be constantly taken into consideration in the choice of materials and protection systems.
The installation of the membrane on the mud carpet is based on the subsoil. The membrane must be fully bonded to concrete slabs. Gluing is not possible with gravel beds, so the floor membrane can be laid loose with glued joints. If an additional membrane is required, it must be glued to the lower membrane. The mud cap seal should protrude 9 to 12 inches above the foundation to allow the vertical membrane to pivot on the exposed top of the horizontal surface.
Substrate: Waterproofing can be performed on various substrates such as concrete, fiber cement panels, plasterboard or wood. Concrete is the best support material for waterproofing systems. The preferred concrete substrate is a monolithic cast-in-place structural concrete slab. This is more suitable than precast concrete, as precast concrete requires a nominal overlap of 2 inches thick to provide a smooth, continuous surface to eliminate control joints. Control joints are subject to load-bearing end openings of prefabricated structural elements and would require expansion joints to accommodate movement between panels.
Connection: The sealing connection is made prior to the positioning of the membrane. This is in contrast to roofing systems where the membrane is applied prior to flashing. Connection plates attach to internal and external corners, penetrations, cold joints, expansion joints, height changes and all vertical surfaces. The connection material must be approved by the membrane manufacturer and applied according to the manufacturer’s requirements.
An important feature of the grooves is the reinforcing material. The lack of adequate port reinforcement has contributed to many premature failures. Cold joints at the wall / foot and wall / floor junctions are particularly critical. The vertical and horizontal internal and external corners of concrete elements and cast-in-place masonry should always require the use of compatible mesh or felts for connection reinforcement, plasterboard reinforcements or changes of direction in the walls.
Membrane: Waterproofing must be applied to all exposed substrate surfaces, especially concrete. The membrane pressure plates in the ground can extend under the foundation walls and over the pile heads. Foundation waterproofing should extend at least 8 inches above the soil surface. Waterproofing materials must be coated Built bituminous membranes
modified bitumen sheets
Liquid applied membranes
Prefabricated sheets in elastomer
Prefabricated thermoplastic panels
To be effective, the seal must consist of a complete or continuous envelope of the underground structure, ensuring complete containment of all areas subject to hydrostatic pressure and / or chemical contaminants. Cracks in walls not protected by crossings or other continuations of the waterproofing system will cancel a waterproofing barrier and render it ineffective.
Insulation: The insulation applied in waterproofing systems has two basic purposes: heat resistance and membrane protection. Insulation in waterproofing systems must always be placed above the membrane. In both vertical and horizontal applications, the insulation protects the membrane from infill and construction traffic when placed over the membrane. Waterproofing systems are exposed to higher traffic loads than roofing systems and the insulation, with its high compressive strength, serves as additional protection. The thermal resistance of insulation is much higher than that of aggregate or earth fill in heated and refrigerated living spaces. Even in colder climates, the insulation, placed above the membrane, keeps the membrane temperature above the dew point, preventing condensation from forming.
Due to the placement of insulation in a waterproofing system, there is only one option for insulation – extruded polystyrene sheets. Extruded polystyrene is the only commercially available insulation that offers high compressive strength (60 psi) and moisture resistance. Moisture resistance is required because the insulation is unprotected and subject to constant ingress of moisture. Studies have shown that extruded polystyrene retains approximately 80 percent of its dry heat resistance under persistently humid conditions. Insulation should be applied to vertical surfaces in a fully adherent application. Installation of insulation on horizontal surfaces should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the manufacturer of the waterproofing system.
Protection plate: The protection plates are necessary to protect the membrane from damage caused by other exchanges and UV rays. Since the waterproofing membrane is the first finished component, it is not unlikely that the traffic of other traders will damage the finished membrane, as well as the fall of equipment, machinery, scaffolding or tools. The skid plate must be applied immediately after the completion of the waterproofing sheet flood test, before other commercial activities are exposed to it. Any repairs required after completion of the flood tests must be performed prior to the installation of the protection panel.
The most common type of skid plate is a laminated asphalt center plate, available in 1/16, 1/8 or 1/4 inch thicknesses. This panel is coated on one side with a polyethylene film applied to prevent the panel from sticking during shipping and storage. Some manufacturers also encourage the use of a polyethylene film at least 6 mil thick as a protective layer. The reason for this is that with the nominal protective layer, membrane defects are easier to detect and repair. In general, it should be noted that the minimal protective layer is more susceptible to damage from equipment, machinery and scaffolding.
Drainage in vertical applications: Underground waterproofing is subject to the transfer of water from two sources: surface and groundwater. Proper control and drainage of these water sources are necessary for the good performance of the waterproofing system. Surface water sources include rain, melting snow, and sprinklers. The most effective way to control surface water is to divert it from the structure. This can be achieved by leveling the landscape and installing gutters and downspouts that direct the water away from the structure. Moisture infiltration into surface components (masonry, cladding, etc.) could sink and cause leaks in underground areas.
Groundwater control is more complicated as groundwater levels fluctuate throughout the year. The liner must be designed and installed to accommodate groundwater at its peak, even if this is a temporary or rare condition.
Adequate underground sealing must include a system to collect, drain and drain groundwater away from the structure. The most effective way to collect
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What is water insulation?
** Before we can answer what waterproof materials are, we must ask ourselves what does water insulation mean?
Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water resistant. Thanks to this process, the insulating material or structure is not affected by water or resists water penetration under specific conditions. These items can be used in humid environments or below certain depths. It is sometimes used to increase the comfort of buildings by using it on surfaces such as balconies or warehouses that should be in contact with water. The question of waterproofing materials should be raised depending on the area of application.
Waterproofing in buildings is the formation of an impermeable barrier on the surfaces of foundations, roofs, walls and other structural elements to prevent the passage of water from these surfaces. The construction surfaces are water repellent and partially waterproof.
In other words, a waterproofing is a protective measure that waterproofs a surface or prevents unwanted penetration of liquids under other external forces, such as hydrostatic pressure and capillary action. It is a process that allows the installation of a continuous system using elastic and durable membranes. This is a technique used in the construction and design industries to reduce the impact of liquid ingress on systems. Insulation increases the durability of concrete surfaces in a building. Advantages of waterproofing
To give a sensible answer to the question of what waterproof materials are, we must first understand why this is necessary. Any building is subject to deterioration if not properly maintained. In this way, some natural factors such as air, water, atmospheric agents, wind and humidity become manageable. When a structure is not protected from water, problems such as deterioration or damage to the structure from the foundation to the plaster can occur. Buildings must be insulated against water against the following causes:
Water – rain and humidity
collapse of buildings
Structural failure in buildings
Other antisocial actions
Waterproofing is a process designed to prevent water from entering a building. Extensive waterproofing measures are usually added to provide moisture control to the building during construction, and waterproofing can also be done after the construction of a building or as part of a building renovation or remodeling.